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How do the invention’s components reduce the forces of air
resistance i.e., DRAG when vehicles move through air at freeway
speeds?

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Introduction:

It will help you to assemble a better version of the invention for your personal vehicle if you
understand the scientific principles that cause vehicles to use fuel or electricity to overcome
he powerful forces acting on vehicles that resist their forward motion through air,

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These scientific principles include physics, aeronautics, thermodynamics, and electrostatics.

Relax.  You will not need to use the sophisticated mathematics used by these sciences to make
your own copy of the invention for your personal vehicle.   With a general understanding, you
can use your own common sense to make versions of the invention for your personal vehicle.

However, gaining a familiarity with the scientific concepts will help you make a more efficient
fuel-saving version of the invention.

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For example, differences in air pressure explains why the winds blow..

Winds are formed by air comparatively higher pressure molecules that are being pushed towards
areas containing lower air pressures,

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one.

Often the old one is thrown out as garbage to end up in landfills or burned in incinerators to
generate electricity and/or make cement.

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How do the invention's components scientifically reduce air
resistance, i.e. Drag?

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When vehicles move slowly., the air molecules in front of them have time to move around the vehicle.

Slower vehicles easily pass through the air with little resistance.

Consequently, slower vehicles, do not consume a lot of fuel to overcome the little air resistance

i.e.., Drag forces, they experience.

However, when vehicles go faster, their fuel consumption and CO2 emissions increase exponentially
not lineally.

Fuel consumption increases because the conditions for generating powerful forces called
air resistance i.e. Drag, get created at higher speeds, not slower speeds.

When vehicles increase their speed (velocity), volumes of air molecules in front of them do not have
time to get out of the way fast enough.

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As a result, huge volumes of air molecules become compressed against the solid surfaces of
the moving vehicle. These compressed air molecules have gained energy transferred to them from
the moving vehicle that obtained its energy from its fuel.

These compressed air molecules form sort of an invisible wall of air molecules in front of the moving
vehicle.

Vehicles need fuel energy to break through this invisible barrier.

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The invention applies the fact that scientifically, energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

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Energy is transferred from something that has a greater energy to something that has a lower energy.

Energy transfer goes only one way, from the Higher state to the Lower state.

Energy never goes from the lower state to the higher state.  This is the First law of thermodynamics.

Aristotle observed that Nature abhors (dislikes) an imbalance.

Nature is always trying to equalize dissimilar things with each other.  This is why the
Patented invention is named the
Air Pressure Equalizing System.

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This pushing backwards process seems to observers as though vehicles are dragging heavy
weights behind them. Hence the term "Drag".

However the fact is that vehicles are being pushed backwards by tonnes of surrounding (ambient) air molecules that contain higher air pressures than pressures forming immediately behind moving

vehicles..

Vehicles need to convert the chemical energy stored in their fuel to mechanical energy and transfer
the mechanical energy to the wheels, to overcome the powerful forces of air resistance, i.e, Drag
that are acting on speeding vehicles as they travel through air.

As a by-product of burning fuel, vehicles release large volumes of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) to push
huge volumes of surrounding air molecules out of their way.

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So,  by understanding how to reduce the forces of air resistance i.e. Drag, drivers who equip their

vehicles with the invention's components, can arrive at their destinations while using less fuel or

electricity to overcome weaker forces and save money and reduce Carbon Dioxide emissions at the

same  time.

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To date, the invention has been road tested to reduce fuel consumption and Carbon Dioxide
emissions only for vehicles that on the average are speeding faster than 40 kilometers per hour
(i.e., 30 miles per hour).

If your vehicle is driven for most of the time, say within a city where traffic lights cause your vehicle
to stop and go, the dominant forces acting on your vehicle are
gravity, inertia, and friction
NOT aerodynamics.

Since the invention works to save you buying fuel by reducing the forces of aerodyamics
acting on your vehicle as it speeds,  attaching the invention's components to your presonal vehicle
will
not save you money from buying less fuel.

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If you drive primarily in cities, the invention will not save you money.

The forces of Gravity, Friction and Inertia you will cause you to buy the same amount of fuel
and release the same amount of CO2 as you did without attaching the invention’s components

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To calculate your average driving speed within a city with time taken to get stuck in traffic and obey
stop lights and stop signs etc., do the following:.

- At the start or your drive write down the numbers displayed on your vehicle's
Odometer (50,000 km)
and your start time 12:00 p.m.

- At the end the trip write down the numbers displayed on your vehicle's odometer 50,060 km.

and the end time 1:00 p,m.

- Subtract from the start of trip Odometer reading from the end of trip Odometer reading.

This will tell you how far you drove. 60 km.

- Then Subtract the start time from the end time and this will tell you how long it took to arrive

- Divide the time it took to drive to your destination into the distance to your destination and

this will tell you that you drove on the average 60 kilometers per hour.

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The following comparison to airplanes that move through air and fly will help explain how
the invention’s components reduce air resistance for vehicles that also move through air.

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Imagine an airplane picking up speed as it travels down a runway. The pilot is opening the airplaine's

throttle to increase the amount of fuel (energy) that is delivered to the airplane's engine.

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As the airplane increases its speed, volumes of air molecules positioned in front of the leading

edges of the airplane’s wing, cannot get out of the way fast enough

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Volumes of these air molecules become squeezed (compressed) between the solid surfaces of the
top curved upper wing and gravitational weight of the tonnes of air molecules pressing down on them
from within the surrounding (ambient) atmosphere.

At sea level, the air pressure of surrounding air pressure is about fifteen pounds per square inch
(15 p.s.i.) or 760 millimeters of Mercury in a barometer. (760 mm Hg).

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When the volumes of compressed air molecules on the upper solid surface of the wing reach the
very top of the curved surface, and the wing moves forward, the underlying surface against which
the air molecules were formerly compressed is suddenly removed.

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Instantly, these formerly compressed air molecules, release their stored energy and expand in

volume forming micro-turbulences.

These high velocity turbulences contain lower air pressures along the length of the wings

compared to the air
molecules under the wing that contain higher densities and
higher air pressures,

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The areas above the wing, contain lower air pressures compared to higher air pressures under the
wing.

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You may remember that there is a principle of science, that states Nature Abhors (Dislikes) an

Imbalance.

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In other words, to correct the imbalance of surrounding higher air pressures below the wing with
the area above the wing containing lower air air pressures, Nature generates forces that try to
Balance (Equalize) air pressures above and below the wing with each other.

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Therefore, to equalize the low air pressures above the wing with the, and higher air pressure under
the wing, the wings are forced upwards by the gravitational weight of tonnes of ambient air
molecules, pushing upwards to neutralize the lower air pressures above the wing, thereby trapping
and pushing the wing upwards in the process.

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This process of air molecules pushing airplane wings upwards into areas containing lower air
pressures ( also referred to as negative air pressures and/or partial vacuums) existing above the
wing is called
“Lift.”

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OK, so what happens when ice crystals form on the top curved surfaces of airplane wings?

When ice crystals form on the top of airplane wings, the high velocity air molecules that gained
energy from being compressed against the solid surface of the leading curved surfaces of the wing
transfer portions of their energy to the ice crystals.

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These air molecules transfer portions of their higher energies to the lower energy ice crystals

and slow down!

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The slower air molecules forming in areas a short distance above the length of the wing, now
contain air pressures closer to ambient air pressures with the result that
“Lift” is lost or at least
diminished.

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The components of the Patented invention, the Air Pressure Equalizing System, perform the same
transfer of energy function as do ice crystals on airplane wings.

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When a vehicle moves through air, volumes of air molecules that cannot get out of the way fast
enough become compressed (gain energy) against the leading exterior solid surfaces of the vehicle.

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These high velocity compressed (high energy) air molecules travel along the vehicle’s solid surfaces until the
vehicle moves past a certain point at which time, the solid surfaces against the air molecules
were formerly compressed are suddenly removed.

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Instantly, these formerly high velocity, and suddenly decompressed air molecules instantly release their stored  up energy and expand in volume.

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These expanded air molecules are farther apart from each other, are less dense and therefore,
contain
lower air pressures, and lower energies compared to the more dense, higher energy, ambient air molecules existing in the surrounding atmosphere.

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The expanded, low air pressure, air molecules depart from moving vehicles’ bodies to travel and
collect in areas located short distances beyond the trailing surfaces of blunt-ended vehicles.

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Since Nature Abhors an Imbalance, in the process of equalizing areas containing different air
pressures with each other, tonnes of higher air pressured, ambient air molecules exert forces
that push moving vehicles backwards into the areas containing lower air pressures thqt form

behind them..

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This powerful force that pushes vehicles backwards, is called air resistance i.e., Drag.

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Drag is the dominant force that resists vehicles forward motions through air that causes electric
vehicles to consume electricity and fossil fuel vehicle to combust fuels that release carbon dioxide
into the atmosphere to generate enough energy to overcome the Drag forces acting on moving
vehicles.

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However, for vehicles that are equipped with the invention’s (Air Pressure Equalizing System’s)
components, immediately
AFTER the formerly compressed and now expanded high velocity low
air pressure air molecules leave the trailing surfaces of moving vehicles, but
BEFORE they have
time to collect in areas containing negative air pressures, they physically
contact the components

of the invention.

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Upon contact with the Air Pressure Equalizing System innovative components, the high velocity air molecules transfer portions of their energies to the invention’s components and RICOSHET (action/reaction) in random directions in micro turbulences and SLOW DOWN!

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The slower, (lower Energy) air molecules that transferred portions of their energies to the invention’s components randomly contact volumes of higher energy air molecules that escaped contacting the components.

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In concatenating chain reactions, and through destructive interference, the higher energy air molecules transfer protection of their energies to the lower energy air molecules that previously contacted
the
Air Pressure Equalizing System’s components,

The net effect of air molecules transferring portions of their higher enargites to the invention’s
components and to each other, is that
smaller areas containing air pressures closer to ambient air
pressures form beyond the trailing surfaces of vehicle equipped with the Air Pressure Equalizing
components.

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As a result, weaker Drag forces are available to act on vehicles moving through air.

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Electric vehicles equipped with the invention’s components arrive at their destinations while
using substantially less electricity!

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Gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles equipped with the invention’s components arrive at their
destinations while using substantially less fuel and without releasing huge volumes of Carbon Dioxide.

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eighteen pounds of carbon dioxide!

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Here's Why.  Depending upon the blend of gasoline or diesel, most of the weight of the fuel comes from the 90

percent of Carbon atoms.

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However Oxygen atoms are slightly heavier than Carbon atoms.

Therefore, when fuel is burned, i.e. Oxidized, one Carbon atom is combined with two Oxygen atoms

to form the heavier Carbon Dioxide.

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Therefore, the weight of two Oxygen atoms that combine with one Carbon Dioxide atom increases the weight of the one Carbon Dioxide increases to almost 3 times compared to one Carbon atom within the liquid fossil fuel, i.e., gasoline or diesel.

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Consequently, by equipping your vehicle with the components of the invention, you are taking

independent action in equipping your vehicle with  your own version of the invention

you, along with thousands of other people who are doing the same, are effectively reducing our

total volume of Carbon Dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

Taking Action Now, together, we can make a major difference in reducing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from our personal vehicles,

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Blunt ended vehicles are the worst geometry for reducing Carbon Dioxide emissions for
bodies that move through air.

By equipping your vehicle with the Air Pressure Equalizing System's components are helping to
correct this geometiric mistake.

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If enough people equip their vehicles with the Air Pressure Equalizing System's components.
and start reducing Carbon Dioxide emissions from their vehicles, it may buy us some time for
emerging technologies to become available that reduce Carbon Dioxide emissions on a Global scale.

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The section of this website, "How You Are Saving the Planet", explains the geophysical reasons why we

must start reducing Carbon emissions on a Global scale as soon as possible.

The section of this website, "How You Are Saving the Planet", explains that NASA's satellites have noted the Earth's Wobble is increasing due to its changing center of gravity caused by the weigh of melted glacier water that has flowed from the poles to the equator.

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The shift in weight is destabilizing the continental plates leading to seismic instabilities e.g. more
frequent and stronger earthquakes, volcanic eruptions.

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In addition, the Gulf Stream is changing its course and not flowing as far northward as it used to. the is
influencing the weather and climate of Norther Europe.

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Moreover, Atmospheric Rivers that are often  700 km (434 miles) wide and 4,300 km (2671 miles)

long.â€¯ long and wide are dumping weeks of torrential rains on to costal regions.

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Atmospheric Riversâ€¯carry about 90 per cent of the water vapour that’s transported toward the North

and South poles.

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If the Atmospheric Rivers move northward to Canada's tundra, the warm water will melt the
permafrost and release vast volumes of Methane into the atmosphere.

Methane is twenty five
times more of a heat trapping gas than is Carbon Dioxide.

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Please note that the Air Pressure Equalizing System offers the potential for millions of people to
attache things on their vehicles to reduce their fuel consumption and reduce releasing mega
tonnes of Carbon Dioxide from their vehcles.

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The principles of science employed by the invention are universally recognized.

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The Air Pressure Equalizing System was entered into an eight-six country competition.  The

The Gold Award for the practical application of physics, aeronautics, thermodynamics,,

electrostatics as these principles of science apply to bodies moving through air.

The second award, the Certificate of Excellence was issued for the Air Pressure Equalizing System's  aboilty to reduce air resistance i.e., Drag forces to such an extent that vehicles arrive at their

destinations while using less fuel and substantially fewer volumes of Carbon Dioxide.

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The following is a copy of the Air Pressure Equalizing System's Canadian Patent Certificate.

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